by Michael Dine 2022

Book Review by Ray Herrmann

**The author presents collection of interesting facts and properties of our universe:**

**Sizes:**

• The size of an atomic nucleus is about 3 x 10 exp-14 cm. Whereas the size of an atom is about 10 exp-8 cm. (10,00 times larger!)

• The Proton has a size about the size of an atomic nucleus (10-13 cm). Predicted half-life 10 exp+31 to 10 exp+33 years (*much longer than the age of our universe*).

• The Top Quark is over 10,000 times more massive than the electron.

• The strength of charge force between an electron and a proton is*10 exp+43 times*the Gravity force.

• Masses with "size" are probably composed of internal parts (Quarks). And the atomic nucleus is probably an assortment of these particles rather than*discrete*Protons and Neutrons.

• A 60 watt incandescent light bulb emits about*10e+18 photons per second***Properties:**

• Protons are*repelled*by their*like (+) force*, so then*what holds all of them together in the nucleus?*

• Electron Spin seems to be along the axis of motion (as with the photon).

• Bosons (like Higgs particle Discovered in 2012) have no spin. Higgs has no directionality (unlike e/m fields).

• When one tries use quantum mechanics and the uncertainty principle to calculate the mass of Higgs particle, one gets a nonsensical result. But it is more reasonable if one assumes that Higgs actually has a size.

• The "Higgs Field" is a scalar field (unlike e/m fields) meaning that it has*no directionality*.

• Neutrinos have a small mass and can change type as they travel. How Neutrinos get their mass points to a region about 10 exp-14 times smaller than an atomic nucleus.

• A cubic meter of the Universe has about a half-billion microwave photons, and the chance of finding a proton or neutron (called baryons) there is 1/10.

• Free Neutrons are radioactive with a half-life of about*11 minutes*(decay into proton, electron and a neutrino).

• There appears to be about*5 times*more Dark Matter than observed matter.

• As Black Holes accumulate mass, their*Event Horizon*increases. They also*give off energy*at the horizon when virtual particle-pairs form while one*escapes*as the other*falls inward*.**The Universe:**

• Looking back from today's Universe, expansion suggests that the early universe was very small.

• The Universe is over 13 billion years old (across), weights about 10 exp+52 Kg with a mass about 10e+78 atoms.

• When Universe was 3 minutes old, it was doubling in size ievery 15 minutes, which is a*long time*compared to proton or neutron collisions.

• Since the "Big Bang" the expansion has been*slowing*(at 150 yrs old, it was*10,000 times larger*. than it was at 3 minutes old.) The early universe grew by*10 times*every 10 exp+33 seconds (during*Inflation*).

• Ten Years after Big Bang, the temperature was about 10,000,000 K (thus, a Plasma of ions and electrons).

• The origin of some inhomogeneity in the universe is due to quantum mechanics and the*Uncertainty Principle*(which means one can't know precisely*the value*of the Inflation Field and the*rate it is changing*at any given point in Space-time).

• Stars and Galaxies started forming about 1 billion years after the Big Bang.

• The**Cosmological Constant**is a term*arbitrarily added*to Einstein's General Theory of Relativity to regulate (fit) the expansion of the Universe to measured values.*(its value may be +or -)*.

• General Relativity breaks down at small regions, where Quantum Mechanics excels.

• Gravity Waves are expected when masses (or energies) accelerate (and slightly "jiggle" anything they pass by).

• The**LIGO Graviton detectors**are made of perpendicular metal tubes 4 km long. Expected passing gravitons stretch or shrink these tubes about 10 exp-18 cm*(about 100,000 times smaller than an atomic nucleus)*. Two units were built (in Washington & in Louisiana). Events are expected to produce over 10 exp+20 gravitons.*Some have been detected.*

**The Anthropic Principle** says the Laws of Nature *are what they are* because these laws are what's necessary for the existence observers of Life.

**Main String Theories:** Have 26 Dimensions (25 space {if one is a tachyon} + 1 of time) or 10 dims (9 space + 1 of time). But maybe the extra Dims (beyond space & time) are "curled up" into *tiny circles* where their effects are essentially unobservable.

String Theories can model most particles of the Standard Model, but do not have the feature of *Parity Violation* that we observe. And the *probability interpretation* of Quantum Mechanics can't be sustained.

**Constants** in String Theories come from "couplings" of parts, so they seem *artificial*, whereas in the Standard Model, the constants are *measured* (not fitted).